- 1 What Is IC Engine?
- 2 Working Principle of Internal Combustion Engine
- 3 Types of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)
- 4 Parts of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)
- 5 IC Engine Mathematical Modeling
- 6 Applications of IC Engine
What Is IC Engine?
This article describes the working principle, components, and types of an internal combustion engine. The internal combustion engine is a famous type of engine that is also known as an IC engine. The IC engine is a mechanical machine that burns fuel in a different space than a steam engine that burns outside the engine. The internal combustion engine uses gasoline, diesel fuel, hydrogen, methane, and propane gas fuel as working fluid. This type of engine emits gas of high pressure and temperature. The internal combustion engine uses the input energy in the form of an air-fuel mixture to carry out the combustion process inside the combustion chamber. Changes in temperature and pressure of the air-fuel mixture act on the engine piston to generate useful work.
This force causes the parts to move at a specific speed, converting the chemical energy of fuel into mechanical energy (power). Below given diagram represents this process.
Depending on this movement, an internal combustion engine can supply 0.01kW at 20x103kW. The electrical output of IC is 1 kW, and the heating output is approx. 2.5 kW. These engines have an efficiency range from 20 to 26%, while they have approximately 92% efficiency.
Most IC engines are designed for vehicle applications and require an output of approximately 102kW. The suitable IC engine employs a compatible piston-cylinder principle in which pistons ( made by steel alloys) in the cylinder are opened back and forth. The power distributes to the driving shaft via a connecting rod and a crankshaft motor. The valve controls the flow of gases to and from the engine. Engine ICE has been found to perform very well with high electrical efficiency than other traditional power generation systems used in hotel and residential hotel purposes.
Working Principle of Internal Combustion Engine
In an internal combustion engine, the combustion occurs inside a cylinder. After that, the heat energy of the mixture of fuel and air immediately transforms into mechanical power. In an internal combustion engine, the fuel ignites and burns inside the engine. The engine then changes some of the energy generated by the combustion into work. The IC engine has a movable piston and a fixed cylinder. The expanding gas pushes the piston and turns the crankshaft. At last, this crank movement drives the wheels of the different automobiles through a gear system.
An IC engine has greater thermal efficiency against the other EC engines. When an engine is operating simultaneously in the internal-combustion machines, it can start a cycle from each stroke. When this engine stroke turns back to its original speed, it means that 1st cycle has been completed. An ICE has 4 steps to accomplish its 1st cycle as described following:
Suction Stroke: In this step, the engine smoke (Air) is given, in the correct proportions.
Compression Stroke: In the compression’s first stage, the fuel and gas mixture are compressed inside the chamber at the top of the piston.
Expansion Stage: At this stage, the air-fuel mixture’s combustion delivers with a spark plug at the top and inside the combustion chamber of an engine cylinder. When the air-fuel mixture burns, it quickly increases the pressure due to the expansion of the combustion produces inside the cylinder. Then the rising pressure operates the engine’s piston inside the cylinder with a high force of energy. It turns the crank-shaft. The crank-shaft then rotates the connected engine to transmitting the mechanical power.
Exhaust Stroke: At this stage, the combustion gas is removed from the engine cylinder, and new air-fuel mixture introduces, and the whole cycle repeats.
Types of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)
These engines have intake and exhaust valves at the cylinder head. The engine also has a fuel injector and a controlled ignition system. The Otto cycle engine is an IC engine designed to operate with four or two strokes of a piston that moves upward and downward inside the cylinder. In general, four-stroke automobile engines change chemical energy into mechanical energy by burning gasoline or some other fuels. The generated heat converts into mechanical power by pressing the piston in a downward direction inside the cylinder. The connecting rod connected to the piston transmits this energy into the crank rotational energy.
There are currently two types of an internal combustion engine:
1) Spark Ignition Engine or Petrol Engine
Main Article: Si Engine
Spark ignition engine includes in the most common types of internal combustion engine. These engines also know as petrol engines. The delivery and ignition methods of the spark-ignition engine and the CI engine are different. In a SI engine, fuel mixes with air and injects inside the cylinder during the induction process. After the compression process, the air-fuel mixture ignites due to a spark by a spark plug and causes combustion. During the power stroke, the expansion of the combustion gas pushes the piston out.
The most common types of the internal combustion engine are 4 stroke engines it means that the piston needs 4 strokes to complete a cycle. This process has four stages that are intake, compression, combustion, and power or exhaust stroke.
2) CI Engine
Main Article: Diesel Engine
Compression ignition engine includes in the most famous types of the internal combustion engine. It is also known as a diesel engine.
The working of the CI engine is very similar to the SI engine. In the working of this internal combustion engine, the air draws inside the chamber, and then the piston compresses it. The diesel engine then injects fuel into hot compressed air at a suitable metering rate and burns it.
Parts of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)
The main components of an internal combustion engine are following:
- A cylinder is manufactured by using steel alloys or aluminum alloys.
- Inside a cylinder, the piston moves forward and backward to transmit energy.
- It will then increase the higher pressure and higher temperature inside the engine’s cylinder.
2. Cylinder Head
- It fixed at the upper side of an engine’s cylinder.
- Made of steel alloys or aluminum alloys.
- It manufactures through the process of casting.
- The Copper or the asbestos gasket supplies to the cylinder and then to the cylinder’s head for making it airtight.
- Piston makes of aluminum alloys.
- An important function of the piston is to deliver power provided by sparking of charge to the connecting rod.
4. Piston Rings
- The piston ring is a circular ring made of a typical steel alloy.
- The piston ring points to the grooves of the piston’s circumference.
- 2-sets of sealing rings are supplied, where the uppermost sealing ring can resist combustion gas from leaking into the lower part, and the lower sealing ring can prevent oil from leaking into an engine cylinder.
- It can maintain its elasticity even at high temperatures.
- The piston packing equips with an airtight seal.
- Valves include in the most important components of the internal combustion engine.
- The engine has two valves (Inlet valve and exhaust valve).
- Provided into the cylinder head.
- The inlet valves utilize to bring fresh-mixture into the gas cylinder.
- Valves include in the most important components of the internal combustion engine.
- And an exhaust gas valve of the cylinder uses to discharge the combustion gas from the engine’s cylinder.
6. Connecting Rod
- This is the connection between the piston and the crankshaft.
- The connecting rod’s function is to transmit the force between the piston and the crankshaft.
- The mechanical function of the connecting rod is the transmission of force between the piston and the crankshaft.
- It makes of special steel alloy.
- The crankshaft includes in the significant components of the internal combustion engine.
- The main function of the crankshaft is to transmit the piston rotation movement through a connecting rod for the rotation speed.
- Crankcase made by cast iron.
- This fixes the engine to its cylinder and the crankshaft.
- It also uses with a lubrication tank (storage place).
- The IC is a large rigid wheel mounted on the engine crankshaft.
- The steering wheel’s function is to maintain a constant speed.
- Stores extra energy during energy storage and provides additional energy during the compression stroke.
IC Engine Mathematical Modeling
In this section, we will discuss the perform different mathematical modeling of different parameters of internal combustion engine at engine speed 3600rpm. This mathematical modeling is given below.
- Brake Means Effective Pressure
- Volumetric Flow Rate
- Specific Fuel Consumption
- Mass Flow-rate of Air
- Air Volume Flow-rate
- Air Fuel Ratio
- Volumetric Efficiency
- Brake Thermal Efficiency
The below given table represents performance characteristics of IC engine at different engine speed.
What Is the Difference Between Petrol Engine and Diesel Engine?
- The difference between a gasoline engine and a diesel engine is that the gasoline engine extracts a mixture of gasoline and air during the suction stroke. Diesel engines are only released during the intake stroke.
- The gasoline engine operates on the Otto cycle. Easy to operate, light, inexpensive, and it has higher labor costs and low maintenance expenditures.
- Diesel engines operate on diesel bikes. Difficult to start, more expensive and heavier, less labor and maintenance Cost.
- The thermal efficiency of a gasoline engine is about 26%. It has high-speed that used in light vehicles. The thermal efficiency of a diesel engine is about 40%. These types of internal combustion engine (ICE) have low-speed. These engines use in heavy vehicles.
Applications of IC Engine
1) The internal combustion engine mostly uses in the road and heavy vehicles such as scooters, motorbikes, buses, etc.
2) Also used in the airplanes.
3) These types of engines use in different motorcycles.
4) Internal combustion engines use in marine boats.
4) IC devices have good applications in little appliances such as lawnmowers, chain saws, and portable engine generators.
5) These internal combustion engines have high efficiency than ECE (external combustion engine).
6) These types of engine use generators that use in hydroelectric powerplants. In hydroelectric powerplants, these engines use to produce electricity.
7) These engines use in BMW cars.
This article describes a detail of internal combustion engine (ICE) working and its different components. IC engines are most widely using all over the world. These types of engines have compact designs. It starts immediately. These engines are very safe to use.
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