The cambelt is a most important part of the vehicle. It is a rubber belt with teeth that ensures the proper rotation of the camshaft and crankshaft in perfect synchronization. It mainly uses to connect the camshaft with the crankshaft. The proper working of the cambelt or timing belt is very important for the efficient working of the engine. This article deeply explains the various aspects of the cambelt.
What is a Cambelt?
A cambelt is also called a timing belt. In reciprocating engines, the cambelt is used to ensure the rotation of the camshaft and crankshaft in a proper synchronization.
The timing belt or cambelt ensures proper opening and closing of the engine valves at an accurate time according to the reciprocating motion of the piston. As the timing belt fails, the engine can’t generate power and can’t run the vehicle.
The rubber is most commonly used for the construction of the cambelt. A synthetic compound is also mixed with rubber to improve its durability. The belt has teeth (grooves) on one side to improve the retention of various shaft heads within the motor. If the belt doesn’t have these grooves, it can slip at any time.
This type of belt is installed in a specific arrangement along one side of the engine. The main function of the camblet is to synchronize the bottom half of the engine (crankcase and piston) with the top half (cylinder head and valves).
With the passage of time, the belt stretches; due to that, it fails without warning. In some cases, you can hear a rattling noise in the timing belt area when the engine is idling. This indicates wear and tear on the belt tensioner or idler pulley and may result in belt damage. This is a factor that may cause premature belt failure.
Construction of Timing Belt
The maximum timing belts are made of rubber, but some types of timing belts are also made of neoprene or polyurethane. The toothed surface of the belt is strengthened with fabric cover while the belt structure is strengthened with fiber cord (as tension member).
As we know that rubber deteriorates due to extreme temperature and oil leakage. As a result, the engine overheating or leaky engine oil reduces the service life of the belt. In addition, the leaky coolant or water also reduces the life cycle of the reinforced cord. Therefore, it is vital that the belt, which may damage due to water, must have the ability to remove the water fast.
The conventional belts have trapezoid design teeth, which increases the wear rate of the teeth. The latest belts have curved teeth that have a quiet operation and long service life.
Manufacturer-specification belts can stretch at high speed, delaying the cams and retarding the combustion process. The strongest aftermarket belts don’t stretch and stay the same over time. The wider belts increase strength, while narrow belts reduce friction and weight.
Function of Cambelt or Timing Gear
The primary function of a timing belt or cambelt is to control the timing of the IC engine. It handles the timing and order of opening and closing the engine cylinder valves. It also ensures the rotation of the camshaft and crankshaft at proper synchronously.
- It regulates the proper closing and opening of the cylinder valves so that the engine burns the fuel properly.
- The crankshaft moves the piston upward and downward simultaneously.
- Tight timing can damage pistons, valves, and other engine parts.
Signs of a Bad Cambelt or Timing Belt
A bad cambelt generates one of the following signs:
- Ticking or Clicking Noise
- Engine Won’t Turn Over
- Oil Leak Near the Motor
- High Amount of Smoke from Tailpipe
- Engine Won’t Start
The shiny belt rubber is one of the first signs of a bad cambelt. This is a clear symptom of stressed rubber that represents that your belt will break very soon. Therefore, as you observe this sign, immediately replace your belt. In this way, you can save yourself by an expansive repair.
The cracks on your belt rubber represent that it’s time to replace the belt with a new one. These cracks may cause due to the age of the belt or breakdown instead of wear and tear.
The cracks show that rubber is in poor condition and can break at any time.
With rubber, peeling is like a crack. This symptom shows that the belt material has been damaged and quickly losing its integrity. Therefore, you must replace your belt as soon as possible.
The loose belt shows that you need to replace it. When the belt rotates, such as when the engine starts, the movement requires moderate tension.
A loose belt slips again and again due to that engine can’t work efficiently. As your timing belt loose, you must tight it or replace it immediately.
The belt slipping is one of the famous signs of a bad timing belt. The belt slip shows that your belt teethes are damaged, and you need to replace your belt.
6) Engine Misfiring
A bad belt can affect the air-fuel ignition process and may cause engine misfiring. If your engine belt is worn-out, it will slip due to that it will be unable to open and close the cylinder valves properly.
If the cylinder valves don’t open and close properly, the engine will not properly burn the air-fuel mixture and cause misfiring. Engine stalling is a sign of a malfunction which shows that you must inspect your engine quickly to avoid serious engine damage.
7) Ticking or Clicking Noise
If the engine of your car makes a clicking noise, it means that your timing belt has a serious problem. The vehicle’s cambelt is connected to a series of pulleys that connect to the crankshaft and camshaft of the engine.
The crankshaft transfers its rotary motion to connecting rod, which is further connected to the piston. This piston reciprocates in the combustion chamber.
The camshaft controls the opening and closing timing of the cylinder valves and rocker arm assembly. The proper opening and closing of the cylinder valves ensure the proper fuel supply to the combustion chamber.
With time, the timing belt starts to wear out, and it may generate a clicking noise in the engine. The engine may also produce this clicking noise due to low coolant or low oil pressure.
8) Engine Won’t Turn Over
In case of a bad or damaged cambelt, the engine can’t ignite the fuel or turn over properly. In other words, you can hear the starter motor running when you turn the key, but it will not completely ignite the fuel.
The cambelt is responsible for properly operating the crankshaft and camshaft. When the timing belt damages, it badly affects the performance of the crankshaft and camshaft due to that engine won’t be turned over.
If the timing belt breaks, you can’t drive the vehicle. Timing belts usually damage while driving. This can lead to severe damage to cylinder head components such as valves, pushrods, and rocker arms.
9) Oil Leak Near the Motor
An oil leak near the motor is one of the most famous symptoms of a bad timing belt. If you see oil around the engine, you may have a leak in your vehicle. A series of nuts and bolts are used to secure the cover of the timing belt. With time, these nuts and bolts may be loose due to that oil leaks through the belt.
Oil can also leak if the gasket between the belt cover and the engine block is cracked or blown. This may overheat the engine and cause more expensive repairs.
10) High Amount of Smoke from Tailpipe
If your vehicle is emitting a lot more smoke than usual, there are high chances that your vehicle has a bad camshaft. In this condition, the engine will need to work hard than expected, which may cause an expansive repair if you try to run it in a forced condition. Because of this overload, your car emits more exhaust fumes than in normal conditions.
11) Engine Won’t Start
If the timing belt or cambelt is completely failed, the vehicle will not start. The starter motor will engage, but the car will not run.
Causes of Timing Belt Failure
Following are the causes of the timing belt failure:
Misalignment is one of the most famous causes of a cambelt failure. Tensile failure or uneven tooth wear may cause of misalignment.
As the alignment of the timing pulley and shaft disturbs, the timing belt badly damages or breaks. The proper alignment of the timing pulleys and shaft increases the service life of the belt.
Solution: Regularly inspect the alignment of your vehicle shaft and timing pulleys and ensure their proper alignment. The proper alignment prevents you from an expansive repair.
2) Excessive Load
If the teethes of the belt are shearing, the high load may damage the belt. Unnecessary or impulsive loads can lead to excessive tooth wear or tensile fracture. To fix this, you need to redesign the drive.
Solution: Regularly inspect the condition of your belt teeth and don’t put more load than the capacity of the belt.
3) Under-tensioned Belt
The tooth skipping, also known as “ratcheting,” can occur due to insufficient belt tension. Insufficient tension may result in uneven or excessive tooth wear and extreme drive noise.
Solution: Use a tension gauge to set the correct tension on this timing belt.
4) Weak Drive Structure
A week drive structure is one of the main causes of timing belt failure. If the transmission vibrates extremely or the timing belt is significantly affected by belt stretch, its means that you have a weak drive structure.
Solution: By reinforcing the drive structure, you can fix this issue.
5) Damaged or Worn Pulleys
A worn or damaged pulley may affect the belt. The damaged pulleys may reduce the service life of the belt. Worn teeth can lead to belt damage and wear. Nicks and grooves may also damage the belt.
Solution: Check and replace pulleys that have signs of wear.
6) Debris in the Timing Pulley or Drive
The solid debris has the ability to damage the belt and pulleys badly. Contamination on the belt teethes may wear the belt, and oil may corrode the belt material.
Solution: As you notice dirt on your belt, use a stiff brush to remove dirt and rust. Wipe off grease and oil. Dirt may cause any of the timing belt failures mentioned above. Therefore, clean the timing pulleys and put a shield around the body of the drive!
How to replace Timing Belt?
The timing belt replacement process is very easy. Follow the below-given steps to replace the timing belt:
- The car has two belts (power steering belt and fan belt) that house the water pump and timing belt. Therefore, first of all, you need to remove these belts to remove the cambelt or timing belt.
- Next, eliminate the timing case and crank pulley covering the belt.
- It is best to throttle the cogs before removing the crankshaft pulley. In this way, you will be able to reassemble the parts easily.
- After all of these steps, you can easily remove the timing belt.
- Next, remove the water pump. Before you do this, make sure there is a bucket under the car to catch the coolant.
- Reassemble the engine with a new timing belt and water pump.
- Now, refill the cooling system with fresh, high-quality coolant.
Advantages of Cambelt
- It improves the performance of the engine.
- It ensures the proper opening and closing of the cylinder valves.
- The timing belt connects the crankshaft and camshaft.
When to replace the cambelt?
The cambelt age or replacement period depends on the vehicle model, brand of the belt, and how much you drive the vehicle. That’s why there is no specific time frame when to replace it. However, you should replace it more than once over the course of the car service life.
Maximum manufacturers suggest to replace the camblet after a set number of miles or years. Maximum manufacturers suggest to replace the timing belt anywhere between 39,000 and 100,002 miles or 4+ years.
What are the symptoms of a bad Timing Belt?
- Engine won’t start
- Smoke from tailpipe
- Oil leak near the motor
- Belt slip
- Ticking or clicking noise
What is the purpose of the timing belt?
The main purpose of the timing belt is to turn the camshaft and properly open and close the cylinder valves. It ensures the opening of the valves at exact times.
What is the replacement cost of the timing belt?
The timing belt or cambelt replacement cost varies according to the type of vehicle, the area where your live, and the type of brand.
The average replacement cost of the cambelt is between $290 and $500. The labor cost also varies according to the type of engine.