What is a Booster Pump? | How does a Water Pressure Pump work?

What is a Booster Pump?

The booster pump is a type of centrifugal pump because it uses centrifugal force and one or more impellers to pump the fluid. A booster pump is a mechanical device that uses to increase the pressure of the water or other fluids. A water pressure pump boosts adequate pressure to the water and delivers it to the desired location by increasing its pressure.   The water pressure is a force that moves water from the water source into the desired water supply location or system.

The water that is brought to the house from the water source has high pressure (head). As the water flows from the tank toward the desired area, friction and other losses in the pipeline can cause energy losses. This loss of energy stops water from reaching the upper floors of high-rise houses. The booster pump installation provides some extra pressure to the water and brings the pressure back to the desired level. In this way, the water can easily reach the required height of the building or house.

booster pump

A gas booster pump works similarly to a gas compressor. But it is a simpler machine, usually with a single compression stage, and uses to boost the gas pressure, which is already more than the ambient pressure.

A booster pump works with a combination of other pumps. In other words, the booster pumps alone can’t pump fluids into the desired area or position. The main objective of these pumps is to “boost” the operation of the already present pumping system.  

If the pressure of the water supply is not sufficient to meet the desired pressure and flow rate ​​for the sanitary equipment, a water pressure booster pump must install. Because it will boost the pressure and flow rate of the water. These pumps can use for both gases and liquids, but the design may differ according to the fluid type.

Boosters can use to transport high-pressure gas, fill cylinders, increase gas pressure and remove gas. Booster pumps are often utilized in water systems or functions with low waste pollution. These pumps have many military, municipal, and commercial uses. These also use in a wide variety of industries such as food processing, mining, and aerospace.

How does a Water Pressure Pump work?

The working of a booster pump or water pressure pump is similar to a fan. The objective of a booster pump is to increase the pressure of the fluid, and in some cases, it also increases the flow rate. This pump works with an already exiting pump. The booster pump works with the help of a built-in expansion tank. This is a closed tank with an airbag. The principle of operation of the pump is to bring water into the tank, which runs along with the airbag. This compresses the air in the airbag, and the water builds up pressure.

Water Pressure Pump Working

The maximum number of booster pumps are centrifugal pumps. It means this pump has one or more impellers for the compression of the fluids.  Water pressure or booster pump works in the following way;

  • In the working of a water booster pump, the water introduces from the water source into the pump.
  • As the water strikes the impeller blades, the blades supply kinetic energy to the water and increase its speed.
  • After this, the water moves into the volute casing or diffuser.
  • The diffuser or volute casing converts the speed of the water into pressure.
  • In this way, the pressure of the water increases, and it transfers to the desired height.

Types of Water Pressure Pump

Water pressure or booster pump has the following two major types:

  1. Single-stage Pump
  2. Multistage Pump

1) Single Stage Pump

As the name of this pump represents, it boosts the pressure of the water or other fluid in only one stage. It uses only one impeller to increase the pressure of the fluid. It is less effective than a multistage pump, but it gets low space for installation.

single stage pump

2) Multistage Pump

This pump uses more than one stage for pressurizing the fluids. In this pump, each stage has one impeller. It uses more than one impeller for the fluid.

multistage pump

Components of a Water Pressure Pump

A water pressure pump has the following major components:

  1. Impeller
  2. Impeller Blades
  3. Body
  4. Volute Casing
  5. Inlet & Outlet Valve

water pressure pump components

1) Impeller

An impeller of the pressure booster pump is a rotating component. It has multiple fixed blades. This impeller rotates the water axially and radially with the help of centrifugal force.

2) Impeller Blades

These blades are located on the impeller of the pump. These rotate with the rotation of the impeller. The main objective of the impeller blades is to increase the speed of the water or other working fluids.

3) Body or Casing

The casing or body of the water pressure pump uses to prevent the water from splashing outside the pump. It prevents the internal parts of the pump from damaging if a heavy load falls on it. The body of the booster pump is made of stainless steel.

4) Volute Casing

The main objective of the volute casing is to convert the speed of the fluid into pressure and increases its pressure.

5) Inlet & Outlet Valves

An inlet valve uses to draw the water into the pump. In contrast, the outlet valve uses to discharge the pressurized water.

What causes low water pressure?

Following are some factors that cause low water pressure.

1) Gravity

Gravity encourages or slows the flow of water. If the elevation to which the water has to be transported is high, then the water pressure will be lowered. The water pressure and height are inversely proportional to each other.  For example, if you want to pump water up to a height of 200 feet, then the water pressure will be decreased as it will flow upward. This is because the gravity force attracts the water towards the ground, and this force will increase as water will continue to move upward. Therefore, a water booster pump will need with the existing pump to transfer the water until the desired height.

A building below the water source doesn’t have the same issues. Therefore, shops, homes, apartments, and skyscrapers all need large booster pumps to transfer the water.

2) Distance from the water source

The distance from the water source and the size of the water pipe influences the water pressure. If your business site or residence is at the end of a water pipe, then the water flow to your business site or residence may be too low. In such a case, you must have a water booster pump if you want a full supply of water until your house or business site.

3) Additional water systems

Further water purification systems or other water devices in your house can transfer fresh water into your house but reduce the water pressure. A water booster pump provides a lot of help to achieve the desired water pressure.

Where to install a booster pump?

A pressure booster pump installs at the place from where you want to transfer the water. E.g., if you have low water pressure in your home, you must fit a pump on the main water pipeline from where water comes into your home.

Install the inlet, then re-insert the outlet into the piping.

  • If the pump fails, there is always a bypass. If the pump is not working and you require troubleshooting, you can isolate the pump via the bypass. Through the bypass, you can still send the water into your house.
  • Test the booster pump before linking it to your home. In some cases, low flow leaks can cause the pump’s cycling. The cycling produces a quick start and stops the process of the pump.
  • The water pressure booster pumps work by pressure or flow or both. If you find any leaks, isolate and test the pump to make sure it is OK. Then determine the cause and repair the leak.

How to Increase the Efficiency of Water Booster Pump?

If the booster pump is connected with a variable frequency drive (VFD) for speed control, the energy can be saved.

Following are some reasons that will help you to understand the installation of a speed controller with a booster pump:

  • The desired boost pressure can differ according to the current state of the building. For example, if the water pressure demand is low, then the speed controller will not require.
  • Utility companies can also trigger changes in water pressures. For example, low-pressure problems can only occur if the distribution system is facing peak demands.
  • VFDs can also start the water booster pump and avoid the inrush currents, which are generally 5 to 8 times more than the rated current. In the lack of a soft starter device, this inrush can cause an unexpected voltage drop that may damage sensitive electronic equipment.

When a speed control unit connects with a booster pump, you can adjust the operation in real-time according to the conditions of the buildings and the water supply in order to maximize energy efficiency. For applications with low power, electronic rectifier motors offer maximum energy efficiency and at the same time offer integrated speed control

Applications of Booster Pumps

  • Automotive
  • Mining
  • A metal industry like Non-ferrous
  • Steel Industry
  • Anywhere where higher pressure is required
  • Automobiles normal washing
  • HVAC
  • Filtration and reverse osmosis organizations
  • High-pressure spraying and cleaning system
  • Municipal pressure maintenance
  • Boiler feed
  • Washing machine
  • Hot water geyser
  • Food processing machines
  • Domestic utility water delivery
  • Multi-jet shower panel
  • Appropriate for water pressure boosting systems
  • Textile and plastic machines
  • Pumping water up a hill

Advantages of Pressure Booster Pumps

  1. A pressure booster pump provides a steady supply of the fluid or water
  2. It needs small space for installation
  3. It is very efficient
  4. This pump doesn’t need high maintenance
  5. It has high efficiency

FAQ Section

Can I use a pump to increase water pressure?

Yes, you can increase the water pressure by connecting a booster pump with an already existing pump.

Will a booster pump increase flow?

A booster pump can only increase the pressure of the water or other fluids. Due to its design, it can’t increase the flow. But in some cases, it increases the pressure and flow of the fluid.

How do I choose a booster pump?

When choosing a booster pump, you should choose a pump that can meet the requirements of the head according to your application demand, even if it needs to achieve that design flow in a small fraction of the day. Consider using multiple pumps with less power instead of choosing a larger pump.

See More:

1) Different Types of Pumps

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