The engine valve seals play a crucial job in preventing oil leaks, ensuring that oil doesn’t seep into the combustion chamber. If your engine burns oil, it could be attributed to faulty valve seals. When you detect the symptoms of a bad valve seal, it is very important to replace it promptly.
Modern vehicles consist of a series of approximately 30,000 components, ranging in size and function. Over time, the natural wear and tear may lead to the failure of these parts, demanding periodic replacements.
The engine, in particular, undergoes significant stress due to excessive heat and pressure during operation, resulting in the gradual degradation of certain components. The valve seal plays a vital role to ensure the optimum functionality of your engine.
The main function of the valve seal is to control the precise air-fuel mixture within the engine cylinder for combustion. When the valve seals go bad, they produce different drivability issues. This article explains the bad valve seal symptoms, causes, and how to test.
Symptoms Of A Bad Valve Seal
The efficient performance of the valve stem seal is very important to achieve the optimum performance of your engine. The emission of blue smoke from the exhaust system is one of the most common signs of a bad valve seal. You may also notice a burning oil smell.
A bad valve seal may also produce some other symptoms such as misfiring, oil accumulation on the spark plug tip, rough idle, reduced engine power, external oil leaks, or poor acceleration.
The most common symptoms of bad valve seals are discussed below in detail.
1) Blue Smoke From Exhaust
The blue smoke coming from the exhaust is one of the most prevalent symptoms of a faulty valve seal. This issue can arise due to a damaged intake valve seal, prompting the oil to leak into the engine cylinder, where it starts to burn and cause blue smoke.
Alternatively, a leakage in the exhaust valve seal may also lead to the removal of oil directly into the tailpipe, where it subsequently evaporates.
If you don’t fix the issue for a long time, the severity of the smoke increases. You’ll observe that the constant blue smoke lingers even during high-speed driving, not dissipating as it did before.
2) Oil Clogged Spark Plugs
After the recent replacement of a spark plug, if you notice unusual deposits resembling clay on the tip of the spark plug, it’s highly possible that your engine oil is burning in the combustion chamber.
When the oil burns into the spark plug, it produces clay-like deposits that persist. The source of this leaking oil may be a faulty turbocharger or a leaked intake valve seal.
Read More: Bad Spark Plug Symptoms and Causes
3) Rough Idling
A rough idling is one of the clear signs of a bad valve seal. Detecting a faulty valve seal is quite evident when your vehicle is at idle. You might notice the engine’s speed stays low and doesn’t change much. In such cases, a malfunctioning valve seal that allows engine oil to leak into the engine cylinder can lead to noticeable symptoms like uneven idling or occasional stalling.
This issue may also result in oil buildup on the spark plug due to a problematic valve seal. Therefore, when you encounter rough idling accompanied by the emergence of blue smoke, you should immediately inspect your valve seals.
4) External Oil Leaks
If your vehicle contains a turbo engine, a damaged intake valve seal can let too much turbo pressure get into the engine crankcase.
This extra pressure can make oil leak out from various parts of the engine and might even push some seals out of place.
Read More: How To Check Engine Oil Level?
5) Loss of Power
A faulty or damaged valve seal may cause the engine oil to leak into the engine cylinder.
The oil leakage in the engine cylinder may badly impact the combustion process, causing poor engine performance. In such situations, you will be unable to constantly drive your car at high speeds.
6) Bad Oil Consumption
As previously discussed, both a compromised exhaust valve and intake valve can lead to the leakage of engine oil into the tailpipe.
Most engines usually contain approximately four liters of oil. If your valve seal is leaked and you continue driving, you might observe a quick reduction in the oil levels.
If your vehicle consumes more oil than usual in conjunction with any of the above-discussed symptoms, it’s advisable to consult a professional.
7) Poor Acceleration
The poor acceleration is also a symptom of a bad valve stem seal. The bad valve seals may also lead to blockages in the catalytic converter, spark plugs, and valves due to burnt oil accumulation.
When the catalytic converter, engine valves, or spark plugs are clogged, you will notice a clear reduction in your car’s performance, causing it to feel notably sluggish.
8) Ticking or Popping Noise
When your vehicle’s valves have problems, you might hear a popping or ticking sound at the beginning. Sometimes, these sounds happen before other symptoms show up.
As you speed up the vehicle, these noises get louder. This noise usually indicates that some parts of the valves might not be in the right place or they’re damaged. Another reason could be that the engine doesn’t have sufficient oil.
Most vehicles use hydraulic lifters, which need oil and pressure to work well. If the pressure isn’t right, the valves can move too much. Remember, a ticking noise coming from the engine is one of the first signs of bad valve seals.
9) Engine Misfires
When the valve seal is damaged, it may lead to the accumulation of oil on the spark plug tip. This accumulated oil may lead to the spark plug failure.
When the spark plug becomes faulty, it won’t be able to efficiently ignite the air-fuel mixture, causing misfiring issues. Over time, the accumulation of carbon on the spark plug tip may lead to severe engine damage.
Causes of a Bad Valve Seal
The valve seals may become faulty due to one or more of the following causes:
1) Wear and Tear
The engine valve seal wears out over time like other mechanical parts. This seal is constantly exposed to extreme pressure and heat. It also constantly makes a connection with engine oil, which may force the seal’s rubber to lose its elasticity and become brittle.
2) Excessive Heat and Temperature
When the engine operates, its parts are constantly exposed to excessive heat and cooling cycles. The variation in the engine temperature may cause premature failure of the valve seals.
3) Poor Maintenance
It is important to ensure the proper maintenance of your engine parts according to the manufacturer’s recommended interval. If you don’t maintain your valves and their seals properly, they will fail prematurely. The poor lubrication or buildup of dirt may accelerate the degradation of valve seals.
The engine overheating is one of the major concerns that may lead to the failure of different engine parts, including engine seals.
5) Oil Quality and Contamination
Dirty or low-quality oil may also cause valve seal failure. The low-quality or dirty engine accelerates the breakdown process of valve seals. Additionally, excessive oil consumption or leaking can lead to increased wear on the seals.
6) Incorrect Installation
If your valve seals are not installed properly, they may also fail prematurely.
7) Manufacturing Fault
If poor quality material is used for the manufacturing of valve seals, they won’t be able to bear excessive engine pressure and heat for a long time. Ultimately, your valve seals will fail.
Function of a Valve Seal
The valve stem seal is also known as the valve seal. The main function of the valve seal is to control the flow of engine oil through the engine’s valve stem as it operates. Its main job is to manage lubrication and oil consumption within the engine.
In essence, these seals stop oil from going into the combustion chambers from the cylinder heads. If the seal is broken, it can result in too much oil entering and potentially causing engine problems that could damage the engine parts.
Valve Seal Location
Valve seals are positioned beneath the valve springs in the cylinder head, encircling and sealing the valves.
Located beneath the valve springs, these seals might require the removal of the valve cover for visibility. Accessing them could also involve taking off the valve springs.
Replacement Cost of Valve Stem Seals
The replacement cost of the valve stem seals varies based on the vehicle model and labor charges. On average, the cost to replace valve seals ranges from $240 to $2200. These seals themselves are affordable, typically costing around $60 to $200 for a complete set. Labor expenses typically range from $180 to $2000.
If you’re able to replace the seals on your own, it can be cost-effective due to their relatively low cost. However, when you hire a professional for the replacement, the main expense is attributed to labor time.
Although worn valve stem seals aren’t a widespread issue, the higher replacement cost underscores the importance of thorough research before proceeding with the replacement.
How to Test Valve Stem Seals?
To test the performance of the valve stems, follow the below-given steps:
- Park your vehicle on a level surface.
- Switch off the engine and let it cool down properly.
- Disconnect the negative terminal of the battery to prevent yourself from unexpected electric shock.
- Pop your engine’s hood and use a dipstick to check the oil levels in the oil reservoir.
- Examine the valve stem and guide for an excessive gap.
- Turn on your engine and keep an eye on the tailpipe. If you notice excessive smoke from the tailpipe, it’s a sign that the engine oil is burning.
- Listen closely for unusual sounds like tapping or rattling noises when the engine is idling. If you notice odd noises, it might suggest valve issues.
- Use a scan tool to find any engine warning lights or error codes.
- After making necessary repairs, perform a test drive.
How To Replace Valve Stem Seals?
What are valve seals used for?
The primary function of valve seals is to inhibit the engine oil from going into the combustion chamber via the valve guide. Furthermore, these seals play a crucial role in sustaining the appropriate lubrication of the valve stem, preventing premature wear.
What causes valve seals to go bad?
Excessive engine temperature and pressure are the major causes of the valve seal failure. When these seals deteriorate, they lose their ability to effectively manage the infiltration of oil into the combustion chamber. The valve seals may also go bad due to incorrect installation, manufacturing faults, engine overheating, poor quality oil, poor maintenance, or normal wear and tear.
How long do valve seals last?
In normal operating conditions, a valve seal typically has a lifespan of approximately 150,000 miles. But several factors, such as engine overheating, insufficient engine oil, poor engine maintenance, and incorrect installation, can lead to the premature failure of the valve seals.
Can a bad valve seal cause low compression?
Yes, an issue with the valve may cause reduced compression. Several factors can give rise to this problem, including valve heat, gas leakage, and the deterioration of valve seals that hinder proper gas sealing.
Where is the valve seal located?
Valve seals encircle and create a seal for the valves within the cylinder head, located under the valve spring. To access these seals, you will first need the removal of the valve cover and valve springs.
Can valve seals affect performance?
Yes, a bad valve seal may considerably affect the performance of your engine.
What happens when valve seals fail?
In the presence of a faulty valve seal, the accumulated oil at the cylinder head’s front cover starts to enter the combustion chamber, where it burns as you accelerate. This effect becomes particularly noticeable during downhill stretches, and it becomes evident through the emission of a large amount of smoke from the exhaust pipe.